//
动词的过去式和过去分词
//


一、什么是动词

1)The dogs ran and jumped.

    这些狗又跑又跳。

2)I am happy.

    我是快乐的。


二、动词的形态

1.原形:动词的基本形态

    做一般现在时,从过去到现在持续的状态

2.过去式:

    做一般过去时,过去的状态,翻译为“了”

3.过去分词:

(1)和助动词have结合做完成时,已经做了,翻译为“已经...”

(2)和助动词be结合做被动语态,翻译为“被做...”

1)I do something.

    我一些事。

2)I did my homework.

    我做了作业。

3)I have done all the things.

    我已经做完了所有事情。

    The homework is done/have been done.

    作业被做了/已经被做了

4)原形:Don't forget to lock the door.别关上门。

    过去式:Are you sure you locked the front door?你确定锁了前门吗?

    过去分词:I have locked the doors and windows.我已经锁好了门窗。

                  The doors are locked from the inside.门从里面被锁上了


三、动词的变化
1.规则的变化

(1)大部分动词在圆形词尾加ed

原形 过去式(已经... 过去分词(被...
ask 问 asked asked
end 结束 ended ended
walk 走 walked walked
want 想要 wanted wanted
work 工作 worked worked
look 看 looked looked

(2)词尾为e者只加d(e通常不发音)

原形 过去式 过去分词
agree 同意 agreed agreed
die 死 died died
like 喜欢 liked liked
live 居住 lived lived
cite 引用 cited cited
love 爱 loved loved
guide引导 guided guided
welcome 欢迎 welcomed welcomed

(3)词尾为辅音+y者,将y改成i,再加ed

原形 过去式 过去分词
cry 哭 cried cried
dry 弄干 dried dried
try 尝试 tried tried
study 学习 studied studied

(4)词尾为元音+y者,直接在y后加ed

原形 过去式 过去分词
delay 延迟 delayed delayed
obey 遵守 obeyed obeyed
destroy 破坏 destroyed destroyed
play 玩 played

played

(5)短元音字母+单辅音字母,企鹅为单音节词,要重复辅音字母

原形 过去式 过去分词
beg 祈求 begged begged
pat 轻拍 patted patted
rob 抢 robbed robbed
drop 滴下 dropped dropped
plan 计划 planned planned
stop 停止 stopped stopped
wed 结婚 wedded wedded

(6)两个音节的词,重音在第二音节,词尾为单辅音字母时,需要重复辅音字母

原形 过去式 过去分词
admit 承认 admitted admitted
occur 发生 occurred occurred
omit 省略 omitted omitted
control 控制 controlled controlled
permit 允许 permitted permitted
prefer 比较喜欢 preferred preferred
transfer 转移 transferred transferred

(5)(6)可归纳为重读闭音节结尾,不论是一个还是两个音节词,一律双写词尾字母。

元音紫门结尾叫开音节,辅音字母结尾叫闭音节。闭音节氛围重读闭音节和非重读闭音节。

以元音+辅音结尾的单词,是闭音节词,元音发短音,所以是重读闭音节词。


(7)词尾为c,发音为/k/时,加字母k再加ed

原形 过去式 过去分词
picnic 野餐 picnicked picnicked
birouac 露营 birouacked birouacked
mimic 模仿 mimicked mimicked
frolic 嬉戏 frolicked frolicked

2.不规则的变化

(1)A-A-A型

原形 过去式 过去分词
read 读 read read
cost 话费 cost cost
cut 切 cut cut
hit 打 hit hit
hurt 伤害 hurt hurt
let 让 let let
put 放 put put
set 设定 set set
shut 关闭 shut shut

(2)A-B-A型

原形 过去式 过去分词
come 来 came come
become 变成 became become
overcome 克服 overcame overcome
run 跑 ran run

(3)A-A-B型

原形 过去式 过去分词
beat 打 beat beaten

(4)A-B-B型

加t既成过去式和过去分词

原形 过去式 过去分词
burn 燃烧 burnt,burned burnt,burned
deal 交易 dealt dealt
dream 做梦 dreamt,dreamed dreamt,dreamed
lean 依靠 leant,leaned leant,leaned
learn 学习 learnt,learned learnt,learned
mearn 意思是 meant meant
spoil 宠坏 spoilt,spoiled spoilt,spoiled

去一个辅音字母再加t

原形 过去式 过去分词
smell 闻 smelt,smelled smelt,smelled
spell 拼词 spelt,spelled spelt,spelled
spill 洒出 spilt,spilled spilt,spilled

以字母d结尾,将d改成t

原形 过去式 过去分词
bend 玩去 bent bent
build 建造 built built
lend 借 lent lent
rend 撕碎 rent rent
send 送寄 sent sent
spend 话费 spent spent

将两个相同元音变成一个元音

原形 过去式 过去分词
bleed 流血 bled bled
breed 养育 bred bred
feed 喂 fed fed
meet 遇见 met met
shoot 射击 shot shot
leed 带领 led led

将i改成u

原形 过去式 过去分词
cling 抓紧 clung clung
dig 挖掘 dug dug
sling 投掷 slung slung
stick 粘贴,刺 stuck stuck
strick 打击 struck struck
swing 摆动 swung swung
wring 拧扭 wrung wrung

将i改成ou

原形 过去式 过去分词
bind 捆绑 bound bound
find 找到 found found
wind 蜿蜒 wound wound

去掉一个元音再+t

原形 过去式 过去分词
feel 觉得 felt felt
keep 保持 kept kept
kneel 跪 knelt knelt
sleep 睡 slept slept
sweep 扫

swept

swept
weep 哭泣 wept wept

augh或ough

原形 过去式 过去分词
bring 带来

brought

brought
buy 买 bought bought
catch 捕获 caught caught
fight 大家 fought fought
seek 寻找 sought sought
teach 教 taught taught
thingk 想 thought thought

去掉词尾e

原形 过去式 过去分词
bite 咬 bit bit
hide 躲藏 hid hid
slide 滑行 slid slid

将y改成id

原形 过去式 过去分词
lay 放置 laid laid
pay 付钱 paid paid
say 说 said said

其它类型

原形 过去式 过去分词
sell 卖 sold sold
tell 告诉 told told
hold 握住 held held
awake 叫醒 awoke awoke
forget 旺季 forgot forgot
get 得到 got got
have 有 had

had

hear 听到 heard heard
leave 离开 left left
light 点燃 light,lit light,lit
lose 遗失 lost lost
make 制造 made made
sit 坐 sat sat
stand 站 stood stood
understand 理解 understood understood
wake 醒来 woke,waked woke,waked
win 赢 won

won

hang 悬挂 hung hung

(5)A-B-C型

元音全部不同

原形 过去式 过去分词
begin 开始 began begun
drink 喝 drank drnnk
ring 铃响 rang rung
sing 唱 sang sung
swim 有用 swam swum
drive 开车 drove driven
rise 上升 rose risen
ride 骑 rode ridden

过去式和过去分词元音相同

原形 过去式 过去分词
bear 忍受 bore born
wear 穿着 wore worn
break 打破 broke broken
speak 说话 spoke spoken
steal 偷 stole stolen
choose 选择 chose chosen
freeze 结冰 froze fozen
lie 躺 lay lain

其它

原形 过去式 过去分词
eat 吃 ate eaten
give 给 gave given
see 看 saw seen
shake 摇动 shook shaken
take 拿 took taken
fly 飞 flew flown
know 知道 knew known
throw 投掷 threw thrown

(6)助动词的变化

原形 过去式 过去分词
shall 将 should -
will 将 would -
can 能 could -
may 也去 might -
must 必须 - -
ought 必须 -

-

do 做 did done
be 是,在,被 was/were been